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Server Virtualization vs. Cloud Computing

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Server virtualization and cloud computing are often talked about even by service providers as if the terms were interchangeable. This is in part because both were developed to solve a similar business problem: how to provide more computing power at a lower cost. It's also in part because many of these terms are bantied about by marketing folks who, unbeknownst to them, don't know that they really don't know the difference. As it turns out, virtualization is pretty much THE key component of the underlying technology used to provide cloud computing services. So, I thought I'd take a little time to detail some of the key differences between server virtualization and cloud computing...

Q: What is virtualization?

Virtualization is a way to make more efficient use of today’s high-performance CPUs, by letting you run multiple (virtual) servers on the same (physical) hardware. One or more virtual servers share computing resources (provided by the physical server machine) under the control of a "hypervisor" (this is the controlling operating system layer running all the (virtual) servers on top of it. The more virtual servers you can get on to a physical machine, the more the need for physical servers goes down. If you take 5 physical servers and move them onto one physical server, you've reduced the number of physical servers by four. This reduces hardware, space, cooling, and power costs. Virtual servers can also be moved among different physical machines to further align available resources as demand on those servers change.

Q: What is cloud computing?

Cloud computing is a service that relies on a highly virtualized physical infrastructure. In the cloud, applications generally run on virtual servers that are independent of the underlying hardware. (Indeed, a virtual server environment for your application can be one of the services a cloud computing provider offers.) But there’s more to the cloud than virtualization - in that cloud computing is based on the concept of a "utility computing" service, where RAM, CPU cycles, storage and network bandwidth are commodities to be consumed on a "pay per use" basis, like water or electricity.

A cloud computing environment relies on many physical and virtual servers. It is configured in both hardware and software to provide high reliability and availability. Clouds are also very flexible and scalable, in the sense that an application can simply consume resources as needed.

Q: What are the basic pros and cons of virtualization?

Virtualization lets you reduce the cost and complexity of your IT infrastructure by maximizing the utilization of your physical computing resources. It also reduces your reliance on the physical machines reducing the number (and therefore the risk) of physical failure points. But keep in mind - you still need to purchase and maintain servers and software. Multiple virtual servers increases the complexity in the initial configuration and requires a knowledgeable and experienced staff (whether inhouse or outsourced) to manage.

Q: What are the basic pros and cons of cloud computing?

The primary benefit of cloud computing is that you basically remove the physical layer from your control and responsibility. The provider now takes care of the infrastructure your application runs on. You can eliminate the initial start up costs associated with purchasing all the needed hardware and software. Your IT infrastructure costs now become operating rather than capital. Everything becomes an ongoing monthly fee. But this is only a benefit if the provider does a good job. And your internet connection becomes uber-critical! While hardware failures may become a thing of the past, you are more dependent on your internet connection and bandwidth than ever before. Also, when your data is outside of your "four walls", your ability to control and secure it changes (and usually significantly). It's now possible (and sometimes probable) to lose access to business-critical services as well as data, when cloud services fail.

Q: What is a quick way to tell if a vendor is really talking about true cloud computing services or about virtualization?

As Salesforce.com CEO Marc Benioff recently pointed out, virtualization is a software-based technology. "They have versions with numbers after it. That is when you know you are dealing with software; if you hear about versions, you know you are not in the cloud." Cloud computing is a service that goes beyond what software alone can provide.

Q: Should we choose virtualization or cloud computing?

Which approach is right for your application? Virtualization can certainly save companies money in both the short- and long-term. But it is still necessary to purchase and provision hardware and software upfront in order to run an application on virtualized infrastructure. The IT costs associated with managing the virtualized application is also a factor.

Cloud computing, in contrast, costs less upfront because you don’t have to buy and manage the infrastructure. But the more cloud-based resources you use, the higher your costs will be. Ultimately, cloud computing might cost more than running virtual servers on your own hardware, depending on your requirements, workload, and many other factors.

Another key choice factor is data security. In a virtual environment, you control the hardware, the access permissions, the backup/recovery, etc. In a cloud computing environment the service provider handles those concerns, for better or worse. And many times your just stuck with whatever their approach is. For instance, what's their approach to backup? Many times cloud providers only retain backups for 14 days. If you want to save End of Month backups, good luck!

Q: What about application performance?

Whether you choose virtualization or cloud computing, or maybe even both, the performance of your applications is paramount. Both cloud and server virtualization place new and often hard-to-predict demands on the network. To ensure application performance levels to your distributed users, you need to be able to efficiently manage and troubleshoot network performance. Factors like bandwidth, latency, packet loss and jitter can play havoc on both virtualized and cloud-based applications.

Whichever path you choose, the ability to ensure network performance is a prerequisite for acceptable application performance.

IT Factors to Consider When Moving

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Whether you’re moving to a new floor in your building (like we are) or across a state, the key to making a successful move is investing significant time into careful planning. One of the first steps in the process is setting a realistic budget; it's important to consider overall cost as well as the economic impact on the company. Budgeting realistically will help you understand how your organization can use the move to support a long-term strategy, including, future expansion. Careful planning is critical to ensure a effective move while also helping you stay productive during the whole process -- everything from managing consultants, vendors, and suppliers to using the move as an opportunity to implement an office-wide upgrade needs to be considered.

Here are a few tips for a successful move:

  1. "Plan the work, then work the plan!"; Make sure you have a project plan detailing all of the touchpoints along the way and then use it during the move!
  2. Evaluate the new location with the help of an experienced consultant BEFORE the move.
  3. Create a diagram of the proposed office layout and ask vendors for feedback and suggestions.
  4. Plan to make the move during slow periods or over weekends to reduce business disruption.
  5. Include a schedule for dismantling and reassembling your server room in the plan.
  6. Let your clients know alternate ways to reach you while the network is temporarily down.
  7. Schedule the move around the shut down and restart of business critical applications and their impact to your business.
  8. Take the transport of your server room equipment seriously.  Spend the time to make sure equipment is properly wrapped and packaged and that appropriate casing is used, and consider an investment in an insurance plan.
  9. Take care of cabling issues as well as internet and phone set-up before the move to prevent unnecessary delays. Ensure you've left enough lead time to setup the circuits at the new location with your phone and internet service providers (sometimes these can take weeks or even months).
  10. Leave enough time to troubleshoot the functionality of the reassembled server room.
  11. Have adequate help desk or onsite support available for when users return to their workstations.
  12. Expect the unexpected - unanticipated issues will arise.  The best way to prevent a crisis is to devote enough time to the move, giving yourself enough time to address any last minute issues.

Staying Productive

Depending on the size of the company and the distance of the move, a typical relocation can take anywhere from a weekend to a full week, sometimes even longer when unanticipated issues arise. The best way to stay productive is to plan for delays and proactively combat looming issues. New workstations may not arrive on time, unexpected cabling issues may become apparent at the last minute, equipment may become damaged in the moving process, and so on. With some planning, the right hardware and software can be ordered in advance, cabling can be taken care of before the move, and appropriate care can be allotted to the process of packing. The key is to research, consult experts, and examine how the event can be used to your benefit. For instance, taking this opportunity to upgrade hardware and software may be the best way to take advantage of the disruption that is inherently associated with a move.

Building a Realistic Budget

When budgeting for a move, it is critical to consider where the company is going, especially if aggressive growth is anticipated. An IT consultant can assist in the planning process in more ways than one; we not only help you manage all the details, but use our expertise to identify and anticipate costs.

Careful Planning

The best way to manage the consultant-vendor-client balancing act is to begin by creating a Move Checklist. Plan to take steps to let your clients / customers know alternative methods of contacting you, coordinate a new office walk through with your IT service provider, cabling expert, and phone vendor, or if you’re upgrading, contact vendors and order workstations and new software licenses well ahead of time. Creating a plan a few months before the move will help you minimize disruption and downtime and ensure a success (and painfree) transition.

With significant experience over the last two decades assisting our clients with moving their IT infrastructure, FPA can help. Please contact us if you have any questions about moving servers, workstations, or peripherals or for a draft of an IT Move Checklist.

Money Saving Technology Tips

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Now more than ever, during these tough economic times, it's important to keep our eyes on the ball, cut costs where necessary, and invest in things that can have a measurable return on investment. At times like these, it's easy to think about cutting costs in technology investments and expenditures.  However, technology can provide many opportunities for returns with a huge bang for the buck.

We've put our collective heads together and compiled a list of Money Saving Technology Tips which can quickly impact your business' performance. This list is not all-inclusive and each component is not necessarily applicable to every organization – the purpose of this compilation is to provide insight into unexplored avenues of business growth and to serve as a "grab bag" of ideas that we hope will inspire you to take action that you haven't previously considered.


  1. Automate your KPI's (Key Performance Indicators). Many times the automation of this reporting can save days or weeks of time in providing the information you need to run your business successfully. Whatever accounting or ERP system you're using, there are always ways to streamline the process of creating this data in a more timely, accurate, and efficient manner.
  2. Invest in the technology needed to provide remote access so that you and your staff can work more efficiently. Why sit in traffic for an hour when you can work at home during rush hour and then only take a half hour to get in? This simple change would improve your productivity by 2.5 hours per week which equals over 120 hours per year.
  3. Build an intranet to improve your effectiveness and better share documents and information across your staff and locations.
  4. Implement EDI with your strategic partners to save money by eliminating the need for data entry and the costly printing of paper documents.

Enhance Systems

  1. Look to implement a VoIP phone system to increase capabilities while significantly reducing your ongoing telecommunication costs. VoIP is bundled with features such as conferencing abilities, caller ID, and call forwarding at no additional cost, and not only makes securing calls easier, but allows for user location independence.
  2. Scan documents and save them on the network rather than printing them. This will help you avoid ongoing costs associated with paper, toners, printer maintenance, storage space, and more.
  3. Implement bar coding and scanning if your business requires heavy data entry. Implementing bar coding and scanning in your warehouse can capture data entry at the point of origin and eliminate after-the-fact data entry. This will not only save you money by eliminating or minimizing reliance on data entry personnel, but will also reduce data entry errors.

Review Tech Expenses

  1. Audit your telecommunication costs, especially if your contract is over two years old.  This is an area where we're seeing HUGE cost savings with many of our clients.
  2. Audit your internet costs. Odds are, if your contract is more than a year or two old, better deals are available now.
  3. Organize and review your ongoing software and hardware maintenance fees. This is an ideal way to track down licenses you no longer use and allows you to discontinue payment and unnecessary coverage.

Go Paperless

  1. Configure your accounting application to email or fax client invoices and statements. This will help make your accounting functions flow more smoothly and efficiently and save you hundreds of dollars by eliminating printing costs.
  2. Switch from printing paper forms to using computer-generated forms.

Conserve Energy

  1. Implement a policy to have staff power off their computers, printers, and peripherals each evening as they leave the office.
  2. Have an IT Support Provider automatically shutdown all business devices at the end of each night and power them up before your office opens for business each morning.

Improve Hosting

  1. Change various applications from the purchase model to SaaS (Software as a Service) to run them hosted via the internet. This includes Anti-SPAM filtering, MS-Exchange Hosting, and much more.
  2. Move servers to a third-party co-location facility to eliminate the cost of server rooms. This can also serve as a great disaster recovery solution!

Outsource Your IT Services

  1. Consider replacing in-house IT staff with outsourced support, eliminating all of the costs associated with full-time staff (salary, payroll taxes, workers' compensation, benefits, vacation days, sick days, training, etc.).
  2. Eliminate vendor responsibility avoidance by outsourcing. There is no multi-vendor finger pointing when there is just one, resourceful solution provider.
  3. Do away with technology that is not the right fit for your business model. An outsourced IT provider with an intimate understanding of your business can guide your technology decisions based on your business objectives while steering you away from hidden pitfalls and overspending on unnecessary purchases and upgrades.

Modernize Marketing

  1. Look into advertising on social networking sites such as Facebook or LinkedIn, if business appropriate.
  2. Generate email blasts using simple, outsourced online companies such as Swiftpage, Constant Contact, or Campaigner.
  3. Implement a contact manager or customer relationship management (CRM) system to allow you to effectively manage your customer list, generate email blasts, or various marketing and advertising campaigns.

Optimize Website Function

  1. Consider adding B2B capabilities to your website to automate your interactions with your strategic partners. This will help automate and standardize correspondence.
  2. Add eCommerce capabilities to your website and sell your wares online!
  3. Allow your customers to enter orders through your website. The less time a client has to spend to place an order, the more likely he or she is to do business with you.
  4. Integrate order taking on your website with your back office accounting to eliminate data entry costs and errors.
  5. Optimize your website for search engines to drive more traffic and potential customers to your site.
  6. Launch a pay per click campaign with Google or Yahoo to drive more traffic and prospective customers to your site.

Please let me know your thoughts on this subject...

Tech Travel Tips

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There's nothing worse than the feeling you get when you're stranded when traveling.  And by stranded, I mean because you're having problems preventing you from connecting up remotely and accessing the information you need access to. Here are some tips to help you with your technology when you're traveling:

Create a Travel Kit

Keep your various travel computer accessories - such as USB flash drive and hub, cable lock, extra phone battery, power strip, VoIP (Voice Over Internet protocol) headset, and webcam - in one place or kit.  When you're ready to hit the road, grab the kit and you're good to go.

Practice Logging in, and on

Don't try logging on to the corporate server or logging in to your remote accounts for the first time once you're on the road. Practice remote data access from the stress-free environment of your home.

Have IT on Standby

Information Technology people are your lifeline if you run into connection issues on the road.  Keep your IT Help Desk and support names and numbers handy.

Work Smart

Stay in hotels that provide free internet access and an in-room work space as well as fax, copy and print servies.

Keep a Neat Desk

Straighten up things at the office before leaving on an extended trip.  An organized desk will help co-workers find files or documents that you -- or they -- might need while you're away.

Schedule Time to Stay in Touch

Chasing down your staff or keeping in touch with family members can be challenging if everyone's on different schedules or time zones.  Before departing, setup call-in times.  Alternatively, start or end the day with e-mail updates.

Protecting Your Online Financial Info

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Consumers are conducting more and more of their financial transactions online.  Consequently, they may become vulnerable to tracking, hacking, identity theft, phishing scams, and other online risks.  While nothing can guarantee complete safety while online, much can be done to understand and minimize your exposure to risk.

Here are some basic ways to help maintain privacy and secure your information while on the web:

Understand Privacy Policies

Before conducting any financial transactions online, carefully read the privacy policies of each institution with which you plan to do online business.  Find out how the business intends to maintain and secure your financial information.  If you don't understand the legal jargon, ask questions.  You can always email or call a business and request a simplified explanation of its privacy policies.

Avoid Using Easily Decipherable PINS and Passwords

When deciding on PINS, passwords, and other login information, avoid using your mother's maiden name, your birth date, the last four digits of our Social Security number, your kids names, or your phone number.  Avoid other obvious choices, like a series of consecutive numbers or your home town.  Also, avoid using the same PINS and passwords on multiple sites.  Then, if your PIN or password is discovered on one site, the others will remain secure.

Use Secure Web Pages Only

Use only secure browsers when shopping online to guard the security of your transactions during transmission.  There are two general indicators of a secured web page.  First, check that the web page URL begins with "https".  Most URL's begin with "http" - the "s" at the end indicates that the site is "secure".  This means that passwords and other information will be encrypted before sending back and forth to the server.  Second, look for a "lock" icon in the window of the browser.  You can double-click on this icon for details about the site's security.  Be cautious about providing your financial information to websites that are not well known.  Larger companies and well-known web sites have developed policies to protect the rights and financial information of their customers.

Keep Your Operating System Up-to-Date

High-priority updates are critical to the security and reliability of your computer.  They also offer the latest protection against malicious online activities.  When your computer prompts you to conduct an update, do it as soon as possible.

Keep Your Firewall Turned On

A firewall helps protect your computer from hackers who might try to delete information, crash your computer, or steal your passwords or credit card numbers.  Make sure your firewall is always turned on.

Do Your Homework

To learn more about securing your computer and protecting your personal information, visit www.getnetwise.org, www.onguardonline.gov, or www.wiredsafety.org.  These websites provide valuable information to help you protect your private information when conducting financial transactions online. In addition, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) works for the consumer to prevent fraudulent, deceptive, and unfair practices in the marketplace.

While maintaining anonymity on the web can be challenging, it's important to protect your financial information and the financial information of your family.  In time, more protective measures will be established so that you can feel assured that your financial information will be protected from unknown third parties.  In the meantime, it's up to you to safeguard your financial information by being vigilant in your online practices.

What to Look for in a Cloud Provider

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Are you considering moving "to the cloud"? While there are a number of benefits to doing this - lower initial capital outlay, known monthly fees, increased accessibility, built in business continuity, etc. - there are still a number of serious considerations to keep in mind before you do. Thanks to its skyrocketing popularity, established technology companies and upstarts alike have rushed to create cloud offerings. The competition this produces is a boon for companies shopping for cloud offerings, but it also creates challenges when looking for a provider that can be trusted.

Whether you're searching for a cloud hosting solution or a cloud-based application, here are a few things to look for when seeking a cloud provider:

A Solid SLA

If you're going to place your applications and your data in the cloud, you will need to get a Service Level Agreement from your provider that guarantees certain levels of performance if you have any hope of sleeping at night. Not all SLAs are created equal though. Therefore, it's important to evaluate SLAs closely. What do they really provide for? What sort of outs, if any, has the provider given itself that could leave you hanging dry? One of the questions we always pose is - will you provide your SLA BEFORE we sign up? If not, you know something's fishy.

Pricing That Passes the Sniff Test

You hear it time and time again: the cloud helps companies reduce costs. But does it? When you run the numbers, many cloud offerings appear unreasonably expensive. There are certain economies of scale where the cloud works and where it doesn't. Unfortunately, far too many companies don't run the numbers. Don't make that mistake.

An Experienced Founding/Management Team

If your business is going to rely on the cloud, you need to be able to rely on the people running your cloud. For obvious reasons, taking a chance on a cloud provider who hasn't been around for a while or run by those who lack enterprise-level experience is a risky proposition.

An Industry Standard Solution

One of the biggest problems with the cloud is that many if not most cloud providers have built clouds that aren't interoperable with each other (can you say Amazon Web Services?). This is great for them, as it helps create customer lock-in, but it's bad for customers who might want or need to jump to a different cloud down the road. Make sure your cloud solution is based on underlying technologies provided by industry leaders such as Microsoft, Vmware, and Citrix.

Strong Security

This is such a broad topic. Whether the concern is: Data Segregation, Secure Access, Encryption, Authentication, Regulatory Compliance, Data Location, or a number of other things… security is important. The tough thing with the cloud is - you have to do your due dillegence at a fairly low level. It's easy for cloud providers to demo a pretty solution, but on the inside it could be a mess of security problems. Don't be afraid to ask for an audited report of the data center.

A Clear and Robust Backup Strategy

Not all cloud providers have a plan for backup or what they provide is only a minimal solution. I've seen many default to a 14 day retention. This may or may not be good enough for your business. Many providers charge extra to retain data longer than this. And just try to get a cloud provider to store monthly or yearly backup sets! And, you need to consider more than just your data. Remove the hardware layer for a second (again, one of the benefits of the cloud) - what happens if a server goes down? Or gets corrupted. How does the cloud provider handle this situation? What if your Active Directory gets corrupted? Are you supposed to be performing a backup or do they have a strategy? Don’t just assume they are doing it. Get their SLA’s and guarantees in writing, and make sure you fully understand the ramifications.

Don't Forget the Pieces NOT in the Cloud

Moving to the cloud doesn't mean failures won't occur - just that they'll be different ones (than what you're used to in the past). Everything may be fine in the cloud, but you still can't work. Your internet connection goes down. Or your firewall. Or you get a virus on your local workstation. Now that everything's in the cloud, you still need to consider your points of failure - you just have to address them with redundancy like never before. You might want to consider a backup internet connection. You might need automatic failover on your firewall. The point is, you need to be prepared and (as Apple says) think different.

Right now, the cloud is like what the wild west was 150 years ago. There are a ton of companies offering their own brand of cloud. So it's hard (if not impossible) to compare apples to apples. It's also immature to the extent that it's still a boutique sort of solution truly requiring an intimate knowledge and understanding of your specific business. Not everyone can go to the cloud and not everyone should. But, there are a ton of success stories when done right. And the only consistent component of every successful cloud migration is the involvement of a highly knowledgeable and experienced IT Service Provider (like FPA) to help guide the client successfully through the process.

Key Considerations for Developing a Mobile Device Policy

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You and your coworkers are probably already using personal smartphones and tablets to access business information and applications. It’s clear that mobility can boost productivity and improve collaboration. And whether your employees are Millennials or the over-40 set, people simply expect the convenience of using mobile devices for work. Despite the rush to mobile though, according to Trend Micro 46% of companies that permit BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) reported experiencing a data or security breach as a result of an employee-owned device accessing the corporate network. Clearly, organizations need to take steps toward protecting themselves from the risks of lost or stolen mobile devices.

Whatever your own personal position is regarding allowing your employees access to your company's information via their mobile devices, at a minimum, you need to acknowledge that it's happening and you better get on board. So, rather than fighting it or just turning a blind eye and hoping for the best, you need to have a policy in place. And the fastest and easiest way to address this is to simply incorporate it into your (already existing) Computer Use Policy document. And a subset within this needs to be your policy regarding BYOD.

While setting policies to govern the use of mobile devices is an essential part of any BYOD initiative, dictating usage can be a delicate balance. Some people might not welcome the idea that their company can determine what applications can be downloaded or that data and applications can be remotely deleted from their phones – especially their personal devices.

BYOD means new thinking for both companies and employees, including new approaches for security, new ways to manage applications, and a changing model for technical support.  All of these areas can be wrapped up into the umbrella known as "Mobile Device Management".

That said, here are some key considerations for developing a Mobile Device Policy for your business:

  1. Define your business goals. First, determine how many employees will be bringing their own device vs. the company providing them.  This will impact the initial capital outlays, the ongoing operating expenses, as well as the ongoing maintenance and support needs (and related costs). Determine whether your organization will pay for some or all of the cost of employees’ mobile devices or service plans. From there, you can develop your ROI model.
  2. What is your risk tolerance? Mobility shines a spotlight on new risks, as sensitive information is carried outside the four walls your office. Understand your company's requirements for data protection, especially in highly sensitive environments where there may be legal or compliance issues or special protection for senior executives’ communications. The applications and data on mobile devices, as well as usernames and passwords, can be valuable to cybercriminals. Risk varies by industry. For instance, healthcare providers and financial services firms (like Investment Advisors and CPA's) generally have tighter legal, compliance, and regulatory requirements. Your company's policies governing access to appropriate (or inappropriate) content should also be factored into your Computer Use Policy.
  3. Start with your existing policies. In many cases, you can use the current policies for remote access or mobility to develop a new policy that governs all of mobility (to include personal devices). Identify gaps in the existing policy that should be addressed by the new mobility policy.
  4. Develop your mobility use cases. Mobile workers come in all shapes and sizes, from road warriors to corridor warriors to visitors and contractors. They may need access to a variety of applications and information, some of which may be sensitive. Mobile devices may be fully trusted, such as company-owned laptops, tablets and smartphones, and these devices may be given broader access - while employee-owned or visitors’ smartphones, tablets and laptops may have more limited access. Set up specific policies that describe the access that’s appropriate to the different user roles.
  5. How will you segregate personal and organizational intellectual property? Successfully separating personal and company information on the mobile device enables you to manage your company’s information without affecting the individual’s personal information. This allows companies to remove business applications and data if an employee leaves without affecting their personal applications and data. Some applications and approaches keep the data off the mobile device entirely. Or you can use a container approach, such as through mobile device management (MDM) software, that keeps corporate information separate - and where it can be appropriately secured.
  6. Use mobile device management software. Lost and stolen phones are a fact of life. MDM software will give you the ability to remotely lock or wipe lost or stolen mobile devices. MDM solutions typically also allow for over-the-air distribution of applications, data and configurations, which simplifies managing a large number of mobile devices, whether company owned or employee owned.
  7. Clearly state the users’ responsibilities. It is a new reality of mobility that users have to accept more responsibility for protecting sensitive information and devices than they did in the days of desktop PCs. Education is key. Clearly outlining the risks and users’ responsibilities in protecting themselves and the organization against security breaches is essential. Have employees sign the new mobility policy agreeing to use strong passwords as well as accept the "wipe if lost or terminated" policy.  And above all - do NOT allow jailbreaking.

If you have any questions or are interested in learning more about our recommended approach to Mobile Device Management or how we manage our own fleet of mobile devices, please send us an email or give us a call.

About the Author
Craig Pollack
Craig Pollack Blog Profile Image Craig is the Founder & CEO of FPA Technology Services, Inc. Craig provides the strategy and direction for FPA, ensuring its clients, their business owners, and key decision makers leverage technology most effectively to achieve their business objectives. Craig focuses on ensuring that the technologies implemented by clients are "business centric" and key components of their businesses' success, and that this approach is shared by every staff member of FPA.
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